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Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003 Feb;51(2):113-6.

Development of 5-[(3-aminopropyl)phosphinooxy]-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one as a novel whitening agent.

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R&D Center, Amore-Pacific Corporation, Borari, Kiheung-up, Yongin-si, Kyounggi-do, Korea.


A stable derivative of kojic acid, 5-[(3-aminopropyl)phosphinooxy]-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (Kojyl-APPA), was synthesized in good yield. The effects of Kojyl-APPA on tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis were investigated. Kojyl-APPA showed tyrosinase inhibition effect (30%) in situ, but not in vitro. Kojyl-APPA inhibited tyrosinase activity significantly at 24 h after treatment in normal human melanocytes. It means that Kojyl-APPA is not a direct inhibitor of tyrosinase itself, but it is converted to a potential inhibitor kojic acid enzymatically in cells. In addition, Kojyl-APPA decreased melanin content to 75% of control in melanoma cells and decreased neomelanin synthesis to 43% of control in normal human melanocytes. Its permeation through skin increased by about 8 times as compared with kojic acid.

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