Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Feb;9(2):716-21.

Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor D in breast carcinoma with long-term follow-up.

Author information

Second Department of Pathology, Wakayama Medical University, 641-8509 Wakayama City, Japan.



Expression of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors by tumors may influence the route of metastatic spread. The angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth D (VEGF-D) is implicated in the development of lymphatic vessels and promotion of lymphatic metastases. The purpose of this study is to determine whether VEGF-D correlates with lymph node metastasis or prognosis.


We assessed VEGF-D expression using immunohistochemistry in 105 invasive breast carcinomas with long-term follow-up. The relationship among VEGF-D expression, lymph node status, and other established clinicopathological parameters was assessed. Whether VEGF-D expression plays prognostic role in breast cancer was also investigated.


VEGF-D expression was identified in 86 cases (81.9%). Positive VEGF-D was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0238) and high c-erbB-2 expression (P = 0.0211). Survival curves determined by the Kaplan-Meier method and univariate analysis demonstrated that positive VEGF-D was associated with both disease-free survival (P = 0.0023) and overall survival (P = 0.0222). In multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model, positive emerged as an independent indicator for disease-free survival (P = 0.0452).


VEGF-D expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and may be a novel prognostic factor in breast cancer. VEGF-D may be useful in the treatment of breast cancer as a decision-making biomarker for aggressive treatment after operation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center