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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Feb;23(2):166-80.

Temporal profile of angiogenesis and expression of related genes in the brain after ischemia.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Program in Neurosciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.


Angiogenesis is an intricately regulated phenomenon. Its mechanisms in the ischemic brain have not been clearly elucidated. The authors investigated expression of angiogenesis-related genes using a complementary DNA (cDNA) array method as well as Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and compared these studies with a temporal profile of angiogenesis in mouse brains after ischemia. The number of vessels significantly increased 3 days after injury, and proliferating endothelial cells increased as early as 1 day. This means that angiogenesis occurs immediately after the injury. Ninety-six genes implicated in angiogenesis were investigated with a cDNA array study. It was found that 42, 29, and 13 genes were increased at 1 hour, 1 day, and 21 days, respectively. Most of the well-known angiogenic factors increased as early as 1 hour. Vessel-stabilizing factors such as thrombospondins also increased. At 1 day, however, thrombospondins decreased to lower levels than in the control, indicating a shift from vascular protection to angiogenesis. At 21 days, many genes were decreased, but some involved in tissue repair were newly increased. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed findings compatible with the cDNA array study. Many molecules act in an orchestrated fashion in the brain after ischemia and should be taken into account for therapeutic angiogenesis for stroke.

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