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J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Feb 5;95(3):206-14.

Treatment of former smokers with 9-cis-retinoic acid reverses loss of retinoic acid receptor-beta expression in the bronchial epithelium: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

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Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.



Loss of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta) expression in the bronchial epithelium is considered a biomarker of preneoplasia. Retinoids can restore expression of this receptor and, presumably, halt the progression of carcinogenesis. This study was designed to investigate whether either of two retinoid-based regimens, 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) or 13-cis-RA plus alpha-tocopherol (AT), could reverse RAR-beta expression loss in former smokers after 3 months of treatment.


Individuals (n = 226) who had smoked at least 20 pack-years and had ceased smoking for at least 12 months were randomly assigned to receive 3 months of daily oral 9-cis-RA (100 mg), 13-cis-RA (1 mg/kg) + AT (1200 IU), or placebo. Bronchoscopy and biopsy at six predetermined sites of the bronchial tree were performed before treatment and at 3 and 6 months thereafter. Specimens were evaluated for squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, and RAR-beta expression. McNemar's test was used to test changes in RAR-beta expression and squamous metaplasia within each treatment group, and a generalized estimating equations model was applied to model the treatment effect, adjusting for covariates. All statistical tests were two-sided.


A total of 177 assessable subjects completed at least 3 months of therapy and underwent at least the baseline and 3-month bronchoscopic evaluations with biopsies. RAR-beta was detected in 69.7% of all baseline biopsy samples, and metaplasia was evident in 6.9% of all baseline samples from 240 subjects. Restoration of RAR-beta expression (P =.03) and reduction of metaplasia (P =.01) were found in the 9-cis-RA group. After adjustment for years of smoking, packs/day smoked, and metaplasia, treatment with 9-cis-RA, but not with 13-cis-RA + AT, led to a statistically significant increase in RAR-beta expression compared with placebo (P =.03).


9-cis-RA treatment can restore RAR-beta expression in the bronchial epithelium of former smokers, raising the possibility that this retinoid has potential chemopreventive properties in former smokers.

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