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Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003 Feb;111(2):706-11.

Recurrence following treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ with skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction.

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1
Department of Plastic Surgery, The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.

Abstract

Skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction can provide an excellent cosmetic result. Despite its increasing popularity, few studies have assessed the risk of recurrence when the procedure is used for the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ. To evaluate the oncologic safety of skin-sparing mastectomy used for the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ, the recurrence rate was analyzed. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma or both who underwent skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction between 1985 and 1994 and had a follow-up period of at least 6 years were included in this retrospective analysis. The recurrence rates were determined for invasive carcinoma (with or without foci of ductal carcinoma in situ) and ductal carcinoma in situ alone. A total of 221 patients were included, 177 patients with invasive carcinoma and 44 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ alone. The immediate breast reconstructions were performed with transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flaps in 62 percent of patients, implants in 34 percent of patients, and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps (with or without implants) in 4 percent of patients. The local recurrence rate was zero of 44 for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ and 5.6 percent (10 of 177) for patients with invasive carcinoma during a mean follow-up period of 9.8 years. There was a 6.8 percent (12 of 177) metastatic recurrence rate in the invasive carcinoma group. All recurrences were invasive ductal carcinoma. Of the patients with ductal carcinoma in situ alone, none developed metastatic disease. The combined metastatic and local recurrence rates for the invasive carcinoma group (n = 177) with each type of reconstruction were 13 percent (14 of 110), 12 percent (seven of 60), and 14 percent (one of seven) for TRAM flaps, implants, and latissimus dorsi flaps, respectively. The risk of recurrence following skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction for ductal carcinoma in situ is low during this follow-up period. Therefore, skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction seems to be a safe oncologic treatment option for ductal carcinoma in situ; however, a longer follow-up period is important to determine the long-term risk of recurrence.

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