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Vaccine. 2003 Feb 14;21(9-10):1006-22.

Investigation of several selected adjuvants regarding their efficacy and side effects for the production of a vaccine for parakeets to prevent a disease caused by a paramyxovirus type 3.

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Institute for Avian Diseases, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Frankfurter Strasse 91-93, D-35392, Giessen, Germany.


The infection with paramyxovirus type 3 (PMV-3) of parakeets can lead to severe illness in small psittacines (Neophema spp. and other parakeets) as well as in passerines (finches). The disease is characterized by acute or chronical pancreatitis and central nervous symptoms, such as torticollis as well as walking in circles and by high mortality rates in the affected flocks. As there is no licensed vaccine for psittacines available to prevent this disease. The aim of the following study was to find a suitable vaccine formulation for parakeets with inactivated PMV-3 and a well-tolerated and effective adjuvant. Seven adjuvants have been examined in ovo and in vivo regarding their efficacy and side effects. In these investigations, the classical Freund's complete Adjuvant (FCA) and Freund's incomplete Adjuvant (FICA) and Alhydrogel, but also the more recent developments TiterMax Gold, Specol, Gerbu Adjuvant 100, and Diluvac Forte have been used. Regarding its efficacy and side effects, the vaccine formulation "PMV-3/Specol" has been evaluated positively and can be recommended for the production of a PMV-3 vaccine for parakeets.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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