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Vaccine. 2003 Feb 14;21(9-10):856-61.

Maturation of human dendritic cells induced by the adjuvant cholera toxin: role of cAMP on chemokine receptor expression.

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Laboratory of Bacteriology and Medical Mycology, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.


Cholera toxin (CT) is a very effective adjuvant for mucosal vaccination. It binds to cells through its B subunit and induces intracellular increase of cAMP through the A subunit. We previously showed that CT induces maturation of human dendritic cells (DCs) and this may account for its adjuvant property. Here, we investigated the role of the A subunit on DCs maturation by using forskolin, a cAMP inducer. The results show that although cAMP does not stimulate full maturation of DCs it induces upregulation of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7.

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