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J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2002 Dec;45(6):1142-57.

A longitudinal investigation of reading outcomes in children with language impairments.

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Department of Speech-Language-Hearing, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045, USA.


This investigation examined the reading outcomes of children with language impairments (LI). A large subsample of children who participated in an epidemiologic study of language impairments in kindergarten (J. B. Tomblin, N. Records, P. Buckwalter, X. Zhang, E. Smith, & M. O'Brien, 1997) was followed into second and fourth grades. Participants' language, reading, and nonverbal cognitive abilities were assessed. Results indicated that children with LI in kindergarten were at a high risk for reading disabilities in second and fourth grades. This risk was higher for children with a nonspecific language impairment (nonverbal and language deficits) than for those with a specific language impairment (deficits in language alone). Children with LI in kindergarten who had improved in spoken language abilities by second and fourth grades had better reading outcomes than those with persistent language impairments. Also, children's literacy knowledge/ experience in kindergarten and their initial reading achievement in second grade were good predictors of subsequent reading outcomes.

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