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J Hypertens. 2003 Jan;21(1):81-6.

Effects of ACE I/D and AT1R-A1166C polymorphisms on blood pressure in a healthy normotensive primary care population: first results of the Hippocates study.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University Hospital, Maastricht University, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands.



Several studies have assessed the relationship between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D or angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R)-A C polymorphisms and blood pressure (BP). Since most data have been obtained in selected populations, the present study was performed in a healthy normotensive primary care population.


To investigate the individual effects of the aforementioned polymorphisms and their interaction on BP.


This cross-sectional study included 198 healthy subjects. Office BP was measured and polymorphisms were genotyped (polymerase chain reaction). Polymorphism interaction was tested using the following model: systolic blood pressure (SBP) (or diastolic blood pressure, DBP) = b(0)+ b(1)X + b(2)Y + b(3)XY, in which X and Y represent the polymorphisms' risk alleles.


The ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with SBP (P = 0.002) and DBP (P = 0.004); highest pressures tracked with the DD genotype. Furthermore, in multiple linear regression analysis the ACE D allele was associated with SBP (P = 0.005) and DBP (P = 0.001), when adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and age. With respect to the AT(1)R-A C polymorphism, SBP was highest in the CC genotype (P = 0.025). In linear regression analysis the C allele was not associated with SBP. No synergistic effect of ACE D and AT(1)R C alleles on BP was found. Nevertheless, highest DBP tracked with the DDCC combination in comparison with other homozygous allele combinations (P = 0.030).


This study confirmed an association of ACE I/D and AT(1)R-A C polymorphisms with BP in a healthy normotensive primary care population. Although synergistic effect of both polymorphisms on BP does not seem to be present, an additive effect on DBP is likely.

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