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Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003 Jan;60(5):534-40. Epub 2002 Dec 4.

Optimization of isonovalal production from alpha-pinene oxide using permeabilized cells of Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP 107491.

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Laboratoire de Génie Chimique et Biochimique, CUST-Université Blaise Pascal, BP 206, 63174 Aubière Cedex, France.


Optimization studies on the synthesis of isonovalal from alpha-pinene oxide by Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP 107491 operated in a biphasic medium are presented. Three key parameters are identified. The first is the need for a permeabilization of cells by freezing them and then treating the thawed material with an organic solvent such as chloroform, toluene or diethyl ether. This operation allows both enzyme release into the aqueous phase outside the cells and an improvement in the transport properties of both substrate and product across the cell membrane, strongly increasing reaction rates. The second is that the enzyme alpha-pinene oxide lyase, which exhibits an irreversible inactivation by isonovalal (or a by-product), presents a constant turn-over, i.e., the total product synthesis is proportional to the biomass loading and is close to 108 mmol (16.4 g) isonovalal l(-1) g(-1) biomass. The third phenomenon is that the biphasic system used is not phase-transfer-limited, a feature attributed to the spontaneous formation of an oil-in-water emulsion. It is thus possible to carry out a very efficient process, allowing the recovery of 2.63 mol isonovalal l(-1) (400 g l(-1)) from 25 g biomass l(-1) in 2.5 h, corresponding to an average reaction rate as high as 0.70 mmol min(-1) g(-1) cells (160 g l(-1) h(-1)).

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