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Microsc Microanal. 2002 Dec;8(6):447-66.

Tutorial on off-axis electron holography.

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Institut für Angewandte Physik (IAPD), Technische Universität Dresden, Zellescher Weg 16, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.


Through recent years, off-axis electron holography has helped us to understand and to overcome some experimental restrictions in transmission electron microscopy. With development of powerful electron microscopes, slow-scan CCD cameras, and computers, holography is not an academic technique anymore used by specialized laboratories. Holography has proven its wide range of applications in solving real-world problems in materials science and biology. At medium resolution, that is, on nanometer scale, holography allows access to large area phase contrast produced by magnetic fields and electric potentials. In the high-resolution domain, holography unveils its power by unscrambling amplitude and phase of the electron wave, resulting in an improved lateral resolution up to the information limit. Holography is a thoroughly quantitative method, and, in combination with the perfect zero-loss filtering inherent to this method, the interpretation of the reconstructed data is strongly simplified. After outlining the basics of holography, in this tutorial we focus on development of a step-by-step procedure for recording and reconstruction of holograms. At the end, some recent applications are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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