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Intensive Care Med. 2003 Jan;29(1):49-54. Epub 2002 Dec 10.

Rational use of antibiotics in the intensive care unit: impact on microbial resistance and costs.

Author information

1
Intensive Care Unit, Font Pré Hospital, 1208 Avenue du Colonel Picot, 83100 Toulon, France. alain.geissler@wanadoo.fr

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the impact of an intensive care unit (ICU) antibiotic-use policy on the microbial resistance in nosocomial infections and costs.

DESIGN:

Comparative study before and after policy implementation.

SETTINGS:

An eleven-bed ICU in a general hospital.

PATIENTS:

All patients admitted for at least 48 h during a 5year period (1994-1998).

INTERVENTIONS:

In 1995, implementation of an antibiotic-use policy.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Patients' general characteristics, incidence of nosocomial infections, antibiotic-selective pressure (the number of days of antibiotic treatment for 1,000 days of presence in the ICU), presence and types of multi-resistant micro-organisms and costs linked to antibiotic use were recorded before (1994) and after implementation of the policy (1995-1998). For each year, patients' general characteristics and the incidence of nosocomial infections were the same. Costs linked to antibiotics use showed a progressive reduction (100% for 1994, 81% for 1995, 65% for 1998). Antibiotic-selective pressure diminished (from 940 days of antibiotic use per 1,000 days (1994) to 610 (1998), p<10(-5)). A statistically significant reduction in nosocomial infections due to antimicrobial resistant micro-organisms was observed (from 37% (1994) to 15% (1998) of nosocomial infections, p<10(-5)) after 3 years of implementation of the policy, essentially due to a reduction in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Nosocomial infections due to ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas species or extended-spectrum ss-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae showed no reduction.

CONCLUSIONS:

Antibiotic-use policy allowed a reduction in antibiotic-selective pressure, costs linked to antibiotics and selective reduction of nosocomial infections due to antimicrobial resistant micro-organisms.

PMID:
12528022
DOI:
10.1007/s00134-002-1565-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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