Send to

Choose Destination
AANA J. 2002 Dec;70(6):475-80.

AANA journal course. Update for nurse anesthetists. Gender and pain.

Author information

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.


A major responsibility of nurse anesthetists caring for patients is the provision of adequate pain relief. A growing body of evidence in the literature suggests that gender of the provider and gender of the patient may affect the clinical management of pain. The different socialization processes of children has been theorized to influence how, as adults, individuals perceive and express pain. The willingness of females to express their discomfort has led to the perception that females are more emotional and expressive than males; this perception has led investigators to note that females may be at a disadvantage in the treatment of pain. Recently recognized disparities between the sexes in their response to antidepressants, certain opioids, and inhalation agents, as well as the identification of gender distributions for certain diseases, has heightened awareness among the scientific community of gender influences and gender differences that were not evident in the past. Awareness among nurse anesthetists of these differences, as well as the possible influence of gender, is critical to individualize anesthetic management and to minimize the potential for gender bias in providing pain management.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center