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J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003 Jan;61(1):61-4.

An assessment of maxillofacial fractures: a 5-year study of 237 patients.

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Trauma Research Center Faculty, Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Tehran, Iran.



This descriptive analytical study assesses the cause, type, incidence, demographic, and treatment data of maxillofacial fractures managed at our medical center during a 5-year period and compares them with the existing body of literature on the subject.


A 5-year retrospective clinical and epidemiologic study evaluated 237 patients treated for maxillofacial fractures from 1996 to 2001 at one medical center. There were 211 male patients (89%) and 26 (11%) female patients. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 73 years, with 59.0% (140 patients) in the 20- to 29-year age group. A number of parameters, including age, gender, cause of injury, site of injury, type of injury, treatment modalities, and complications, were evaluated. All maxillofacial injuries were assessed and treated by a single oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Other concomitant bodily injuries were treated by appropriate consultant specialists.


There were 173 (72.9%) mandibular, 33 (13.9%) maxillary, 32 (13.5%) zygomatic, 57 (24.0%) zygomatico-orbital, 5 (2.1%) cranial, 5 (2.1%) nasal, and 4 (1.6%) frontal injuries. Car accidents caused 73 (30.8%), motorcycle accidents caused 55 (23.2%), altercations 23 (9.7%), sports 15 (6.3%), and warfare caused 23 (9.7%) of the maxillofacial injuries. Regarding distribution of mandibular fractures, 32% were seen in the condylar region, 29.3% in the symphyseal-parasymphyseal region, 20% in the angle region, 12.5% in the body, 3.1% in the ramus, 1.9% in the dentoalveolar, and 1.2% in the coronoid region. The distribution of maxillary fractures was Le Fort II in 18 (54.6%), Le Fort I in 8 (24.2%), Le Fort III in 4 (12.1%), and alveolar in 3 (9.1%). Of the 173 mandibular fractures, 56.9% were treated by closed reduction, 39.8% by open reduction, and 3.5% by observation only. Of 33 maxillary fractures, 54.6% were treated using closed reduction, 40.9% using open reduction, and 4.5% with observation only. Approximately 52.1% of the patients were treated under general anesthesia, and 47.9% were treated under local anesthesia and sedation. Postsurgical complications were recorded in 5% of patients. These complications included infection, asymmetry, and malocclusion. Overall mortality in this series was 0.84% (2 patients); mortality was caused by pulmonary infection.


The findings of this study, compared with similar studies reported in the literature, support the view that the causes and incidence of maxillofacial injuries vary from 1 country to another.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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