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Annu Rev Biochem. 2003;72:111-35. Epub 2003 Jan 9.

Protein disulfide bond formation in prokaryotes.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


Disulfide bonds formed between pairs of cysteines are important features of the structure of many proteins. Elaborate electron transfer pathways have evolved Escherichia coli to promote the formation of these covalent bonds and to ensure that the correct pairs of cysteines are joined in the final folded protein. These transfers of electrons consist, in the main, of cascades of disulfide bond formation or reduction steps between a series of proteins (DsbA, DsbB, DsbC, and DsbD). A surprising variety of mechanisms and protein structures are involved in carrying out these steps.

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