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Clin Oral Implants Res. 2002 Dec;13(6):651-6.

Precision of transfer of preoperative planning for oral implants based on cone-beam CT-scan images through a robotic drilling machine.

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Department of Oral Surgery, Dental University of Lyon,Thomas Fortin, Guillaume Champleboux, TIMC-GMCAO, Medical University of Grenoble, France.


In this study, an image-guided system for oral implant placement was assessed. A specially designed mechanical tool has been elaborated to transfer the preoperative implant axis planned on 3-dimensional imagery into a surgical template by a numerically controlled drilling machine. The main drawback of image-guiding systems is the use of preoperative computed tomography, which is expensive and delivers high radiation doses. Therefore, in this study the image-guiding system was coupled with a cone-beam tomograph that significantly decreased both cost and radiation doses. Three edentulous models were used. To determine the accuracy of the system, the ability of a 1.8-mm diameter drill to enter a 2.0-mm diameter, 10-mm-long titanium tube inserted on the model with no contact was verified. Because the drill entered the tubes with no contact and went beyond the end of the tube, the transfer error was less than 0.2 mm for translation and less than 1.1 degrees for rotation. The method presented here is low cost and high precision compared to other technological solutions such as tracking. Further assessment in the surgical field should lead to daily use of this system for flapless surgery, to prepare a prosthesis prior to surgery for immediate loading, to reduce risk of injuring critical anatomical structures and to eliminate manual placement error.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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