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Clin Oral Implants Res. 2002 Dec;13(6):610-6.

Computer-enhanced stereoscopic vision in a head-mounted display for oral implant surgery.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Vienna, Medical School, General Hospital,Vienna, Austria.


We developed a head-mounted display (HMD) with integrated computer-generated stereoscopic projection of target structures and integrated it into visit, a specific oral implant planning and navigation software. The HMD is equipped with two miniature computer monitors that project computer-generated graphics stereoscopically into the optical path. Its position is tracked by the navigation system's optical tracker and target structures are displayed in their true position over the operation site. In order to test this system's accuracy and spatial perception of the viewer, five interforaminal implants in three dry human mandibles were planned with visit and executed using the stereoscopic projection through the HMD. The deviation between planned and achieved position of the implants was measured on corresponding computed tomography (CT) scan images recorded post-operatively. The deviation between planned and achieved implant position at the jaw crest was 0.57 +/- 0.49 mm measured from the lingual, and 0.58 +/- 0.4 mm measured from the buccal cortex. At the tip of the implants the deviation was 0.77 +/- 0.63 mm at the lingual and 0.79 +/- 0.71 mm at the buccal cortex. The mean angular deviation between planned and executed implant position was 3.55 +/- 2.07 degrees. The present in vitro experiment indicates that the concept of preoperative planning and transfer to the operative field by an HMD allows us to achieve an average precision within 1 mm (range up to 3 mm) of the implant position and within 3 degrees deviation for the implant inclination (range up to 10 degrees ). Control during the drilling procedure is significantly improved by stereoscopic vision through the HMD resulting in a more accurate inclination of the implants.

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