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J Med Chem. 2003 Jan 16;46(2):222-36.

Aloisines, a new family of CDK/GSK-3 inhibitors. SAR study, crystal structure in complex with CDK2, enzyme selectivity, and cellular effects.

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Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, 34 rue du Jardin des Plantes, B.P. 199, 86005 Poitiers Cedex, France.


Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate the cell cycle, apoptosis, neuronal functions, transcription, and exocytosis. The observation of CDK deregulations in various pathological situations suggests that CDK inhibitors may have a therapeutic value. In this article, we report on the identification of 6-phenyl[5H]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazines (aloisines) as a novel potent CDK inhibitory scaffold. A selectivity study performed on 26 kinases shows that aloisine A is highly selective for CDK1/cyclin B, CDK2/cyclin A-E, CDK5/p25, and GSK-3 alpha/beta; the two latter enzymes have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Kinetic studies, as well as the resolution of a CDK2-aloisine cocrystal structure, demonstrate that aloisines act by competitive inhibition of ATP binding to the catalytic subunit of the kinase. As observed with all inhibitors reported so far, aloisine interacts with the ATP-binding pocket through two hydrogen bonds with backbone nitrogen and oxygen atoms of Leu 83. Aloisine inhibits cell proliferation by arresting cells in both G1 and G2.

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