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Clin Liver Dis. 2002 Nov;6(4):1013-32.

Hepatic manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and Whipple's disease.

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Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity College, Trinity Health Sciences Building, St. James Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland.


The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are closely related anatomically, physiologically, and pathologically. Some disease associations are well documented, such as PSC in association with IBD, whereas others are less well defined. A heightened clinical suspicion is required in these patients who do not present with the classical disease associations. The underlying causes of their diseases are the subject of much debate and research, and their diagnosis and management remain challenging.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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