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Clin Nephrol. 2002 Dec;58(6):445-50.

Long-term use of 1.1% amino acid dialysis solution in hypoalbuminemic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

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Department of Renal Medicine, Derby City General Hospital, Derby, UK.



Malnutrition is a common problem in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Hypoalbuminemia in CAPD patients is an independent risk factor for death and is associated with malnutrition. Previous short-term studies have examined the use of amino acid based PD solutions in terms of albumin levels and anthropometric changes, but not clinical outcome. We report on the extended use of 1.1% amino acid based peritoneal dialysis solution (Nutrineal) and have assessed clinical utility in terms of nutrition, biochemical indices, dialysis adequacy and clinical outcomes.


The effect of Nutrineal was studied retrospectively in 22 patients during the past 30 months. All patients had an albumin level of < 35 g/l prior to commencing Nutrineal, and had either a protein intake < 1.2 g/kg or weight loss of > 5% in the previous 3 months. 19 of the 22 patients underwent an 8-week trial of oral nutritional supplements with no improvement in serum albumin level. Albumin level, normalized protein catabolic rate, weight, Kt/V and creatinine clearance were assessed for all patients prior to Nutrineal and at the end of the study period.


The mean time on Nutrineal therapy was 13.6 months (range 6-26 months). There were no reported side effects of the treatment. There was an average of 1 episode of peritonitis per 23 treatment months, and only 1 patient died (4% annually adjusted mortality cf 8.9% on the peritoneal dialysis program as a whole). There was a significant increase in albumin level from 22.45 +/- 0.97 range 14-33 g/l to 25.68 +/- 1.159 range 16-35 g/l (p = 0.0036). Normalized protein catabolic rate increased significantly, from 0.898 +/- 0.053 to 1.085 +/- 0.056 g/kg/day (p = 0.0057). Weight decreased slightly although this did not reach statistical significance. Kt/V and creatinine clearance both decreased significantly, but remained within the adequate range in > 80% of the patients. There was no significant change in residual renal function (mean residual creatinine clearance 3.8 +/- 0.59 ml/min at the start of the study period, cf 3.4 +/- 0.61 ml/min at the end).


These data suggest that Nutrineal can be used safely and effectively for an extended period of time. Such use is associated with a low mortality rate and a low peritonitis rate, although dialysis adequacy is compromised to a degree.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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