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Clin Chem. 2003 Jan;49(1):121-32.

Methamphetamine and amphetamine pharmacokinetics in oral fluid and plasma after controlled oral methamphetamine administration to human volunteers.

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  • 1Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, 5500 Nathan Shock Dr., Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. rscheper@intra.nida.nih.gov

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Methamphetamine (METH) and amphetamine (AMP) concentrations in 200 plasma and 590 oral fluid specimens were used to evaluate METH pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after oral administration of sustained-release METH.

METHODS:

Eight participants received four oral 10-mg S-(+)-METH hydrochloride sustained-release tablets within 7 days. Three weeks later, five participants received four oral 20-mg doses. Blood samples were collected for up to 24 h and oral fluid for up to 72 h after drug administration.

RESULTS:

After the first oral dose, initial plasma METH detection was within 0.25-2 h; c(max) was 14.5-33.8 micro g/L (10 mg) and 26.2-44.3 micro g/L (20 mg) within 2-12 h. In oral fluid, METH was detected as early as 0.08-2 h; c(max) was 24.7-312.2 micro g/L (10 mg) and 75.3-321.7 micro g/L (20 mg) and occurred at 2-12 h. The median oral fluid-plasma METH concentration ratio was 2.0 across 24 h and was highly variable. Neutral cotton swab collection yielded significantly higher METH and AMP concentrations than citric acid candy-stimulated expectoration. Mean (SD) areas under the curve for AMP were 21% +/- 25% and 24% +/- 11% of those observed for METH in plasma and oral fluid, respectively. After a single low or high dose, plasma METH was >2.5 micro g/L for up to 24 h in 9 of 12 individuals (mean, 7.3 +/- 5.5 micro g/L at 24 h); in oral fluid the detection window was at least 24 h (mean, 18.8 +/- 18.0 micro g/L at 24 h). The plasma and oral fluid 24-h METH detection rates were 54% and 60%, respectively. After four administrations, METH was measurable for 36-72 h (mean, 58.3 +/- 14.5 h).

CONCLUSIONS:

Perceived advantages of oral fluid for verifying METH exposure compared with urine include simpler specimen collection and reduced potential for adulteration, but urine offers higher analyte concentrations and a greater window of detection.

PMID:
12507968
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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