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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Jan 17;300(3):637-44.

GATE-16 and GABARAP are authentic modifiers mediated by Apg7 and Apg3.

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Department of Biochemistry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.


GATE-16, GABARAP, and LC3 are three mammalian counterparts of yeast Apg8p/Aut7p. Here, we show that GATE-16 and GABARAP are authentic modifiers, as is the case of LC3 modification. The C-terminal Phe(117) of proGATE-16 and the C-terminal Leu(117) of proGABARAP are post-translationally cleaved to expose an essential Gly(116) within GATE-16 and GABARAP, with the products designated GATE-16-I and GABARAP-I, respectively. The Gly(116) within GATE-16 and GABARAP are essential for further formation of the intermediates between them and Apg7p(C572S) and Apg3p(C264S). When Apg7p and Apg3p are expressed, GATE-16-I and GABARAP-I are modified to a secondary ubiquitin-like modified form, GATE-16-II and GABARAP-II, respectively. GATE-16-I and GABARAP-I, but not LC3-I, localize to membrane compartments before their modification. These results indicate that GATE-16 and GABARAP are authentic modifiers, but that they have different biochemical characteristics from those of LC3.

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