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Toxicology. 2002 Dec 27;181-182:121-5.

Development and implementation of the IPCS conceptual framework for evaluating mode of action of chemical carcinogens.

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Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway.


The framework developed by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) for assessing the mode of action of tumour induction of chemicals in experimental animals has been illustrated with d-limonene, sodium saccharin, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and sulfamethazine as examples. d-Limonene causes renal tumours only in male rats through a response associated with alpha(2u)-globulin. Sodium saccharin induces urinary bladder tumours only in male rats through formation of a urinary precipitate causing erosion of the bladder surface and extensive regenerative hyperplasia. DEHP causes liver tumours in rats and mice through activation of the receptor PPAR alpha leading to peroxisome proliferation and hepatocellular proliferation. Sulfamethazine induces thyroid follicular cell tumours in rats and mice through a mechanism involving altered thyroid hormone homeostasis.

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