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J Gen Appl Microbiol. 1997 Apr;43(2):67-73.

Cloning of a gene encoding nisin resistance from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis M189 which is transcribed from an extended 210 promoter.

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Cooperative Research Centre for Food Industry Innovation, Department of Biotechnology, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia.


A 56-kb plasmid was identified in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (L. lactis) M189 which encodes resistance to nisin (Nis(R)) following mobilization of the plasmid into L. lactis LM0230. The Nis(R) determinant was localized on a 1.6-kb HindIII fragment by DNA restriction fragment deletion and subcloning. An open reading frame (ORF) of 957 bases was identified by sequence analysis and its transcription start site was mapped by primer extension. The ORF is flanked by two regions which exhibit complete homology to parts of the inverted repeat sequences of IS981 and ISS1T. The promoter for transcription was found to consist of an extended -10 site (TgTGtTATAAT) that lacks a -35 site. Function of the extended -10 promoter was demonstrated by its ability to express the promoterless cat gene from Staphylococcus aureus. Base substitution analysis revealed that the TgTGt extension is essential for promoter efficiency in L. lactis.

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