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J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002 Dec;83(6):1409-22.

An intraindividual process approach to the relationship between extraversion and positive affect: is acting extraverted as "good" as being extraverted?

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Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109, USA.


This article investigates whether rapid variation within a person in extraversion is associated with positive affect variation in that person. In Study 1, participants reported their extraversion and positive affect every 3 hr for 2 weeks. Each participant was happier when acting extraverted than when acting introverted. Study 2's diary methodology replicated the relationship for weekly variations in positive affect. Study 3's experimental methodology replicated the relationship when extraversion was manipulated within a fixed situation. Thus, the relationship between extraversion and positive affect, previously demonstrated between persons, also characterizes the internal, ongoing psychological functioning of individuals and is likely to be explained by something capable of rapid intraindividual variation. Furthermore, traits and states are at least somewhat isomorphic, and acting extraverted may increase well-being.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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