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Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 1999 Jan;2(S1):27-33.

Strategies for chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

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Chemoprevention Branch, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.


Because prostate cancer has a long latency and high incidence, it is a good target for chemoprevention by agents such as retinoids, antiandrogens, antiestrogens, and vitamin D analogs. Phase II chemoprevention trials are frequently conducted on cohorts of patients with previous cancers or premalignant lesions who are scheduled for prostate cancer surgery; such trials are currently in progress with several agents. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) can be used as a surrogate endpoint biomarker for prostate cancer incidence. Studies of men with high-grade PIN (HGPIN) are particularly useful in that they require a much smaller cohort of 200-400 patients instead of the 18 000 patients required for typical Phase III trials. Even with a smaller sample size, statistically significant evidence of cancer prevention is achieved due to the high probability of HGPIN progressing to cancer (35-55%). A Bayesian sequential monitoring system allows interim analysis of biomarker modulation as early as the completion of 30 patients. Putting all these strategies together will help inhibit, delay, or modulate the natural history of prostate carcinogenesis.

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