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J Neurotrauma. 2002 Nov;19(11):1445-56.

Both MK801 and NBQX reduce the neuronal damage after impact-acceleration brain injury.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Oita Medical University, Oita, Japan.


To understand the pathogenesis of diffuse axonal injury, we investigated the temporal and spatial profiles of neuronal degeneration in impact-acceleration injury in rats using Fluoro-Jade (FJ) staining. Impact-acceleration injury was produced in Wistar rats by the method described by Marmarou et al. with some modifications. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 7, 14, or 28 days after injury. Paraffin-embedded coronal sections were stained with HE or FJ, or analyzed immunohistochemically for GFAP or amyloid precursor protein (APP). FJ-positive degenerative neurons were found primarily in the dorsal brainstem and thalamus from 1 to 2 days following injury and these were associated with GFAP expression. However, FJ-positive cells were rarely found after 7 days. In all rats, significant expression of APP was observed primarily in the cingulum, cerebral peduncle and pontomedullary junction. FJ also stained these injured axons. Intrathecal administration of both NMDA and AMPA/kinate glutamate receptor antagonists MK-801 and NBQX, respectively, reduced the neuronal injury. NBQX showed more significant effects on axonal injury than MK-801. These observations indicate that not only axonal damage, but also primary neuronal damage occurs in this impact-acceleration injury model. It is also suggested that NBQX can act both directly on neuronal cells and white matter and that NMDA could have a significant protective effect against not only neuronal, but also axonal injury.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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