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Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2002 Jul-Aug;29(1):1-13.

Genomic imbalances in drug-resistant T-cell acute lymphoblastic CEM leukemia cell lines.

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Virtual Campus Rhineland-Palatinate, P.O. Box 4380, 55033, Mainz, Germany.


Ten T-cell acute lymphoblastic (T-ALL) CEM cell lines selected for resistance toward methotrexate (CEM/MTX60PGA, CEM/MTX140LV, CEM/MTX1500LV, CEM/MTX5000PGA, CEM/MTXR1, CEM/MTXR2, and CEM/MTXR3), doxorubicin (CEM/ADR5000), vincristine (CEM/VCR1000), or hydroxyurea (CEM/HUR90), respectively, and parental drug-sensitive CCRF-CEM cells were analyzed using comparative genomic hybridization. Most genomic imbalances were not specific for drug resistance, as they were found in both parental and drug-resistant lines. Three aberrations were common to all or most cell lines analyzed: dim(5q35), dim(9p21p24), and enh(20q). We were concerned on those imbalances which were specifically present in drug-resistant but not in drug-sensitive cells. All methotrexate-resistant cell lines were characterized by an enhancement or an amplification of 5q13. The methotrexate resistance-conferring dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene is located at this locus. Gain of DHFR was verified by PCR analyses. CEM/MTX60PGA, CEM/MTX140LV, CEM/MTX1500LV, and CEM/MTX5000PGA showed enh(14q21qter) and CEM/MTX5000PGA amp(5p13p15.2). These two loci harbor the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) and 5'-methyltetrahdrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) genes, both of which are involved in folate metabolism. Their gain indicates a role in methotrexate resistance. A loss of 4q35 was found in CEM/MTXR2, CEM/MTXR3, and CEM/ADR5000 where the proapoptotic caspase-3 gene is located. The thioredoxin (TXN) locus 9q31 was enhanced in CEM/ADR5000 and CEM/MTX5000PGA cells. 2p22pter was increased in hydroxyurea-resistant CEM/HUR90 cells. Ribonucleotide reductase polypeptide M2 (RRM2), which confers resistance to hydroxyurea, resides at this locus. Other specific genomic imbalances in drug-resistant cell lines were dim(1p36.5), enh(4p), dim(8p22pter), enh(12p13), dim(17p), enh(18q12), enh(21q22.2), dim(21q22.2), and dim(22q13). All genomic imbalances were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and clustered image mapping to identify profiles of chromosomal aberrations in the cell lines. The obtained dendrograms allowed separation of imbalances common to all or most cell lines from other more individual aberrations. Furthermore, methotrexate-resistant cell lines clustered together. Our future efforts will be directed toward those imbalances which implicate still unknown candidate drug resistance genes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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