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Clin Exp Optom. 1999 Sep-Oct;82(5):182-186.

Viewing distance with minimum heterophoria.

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1
Department of Optometry, Faculty of Allied Health Services, National University of Malaysia (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The purposes of this study are to determine the viewing distance with minimum heterophoria and its relationship with refractive error and the resting position of accommodation.

METHODS:

The heterophoria and the accommodation responses of 36 optometry students (25 emmetropes and 11 myopes) were tested. Heterophoria was measured with the Free-Space Heterophoria Card at five different viewing distances (25 cm, 33 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 300 cm). The dioptric viewing distance with minimum heterophoria for each individual was estimated from the graph, where heterophoria in prism dioptres was plotted against viewing distance in centimetres. The Canon R-1 autore-fractor was used to determine the accommodation response at six different viewing distances (25 cm, 33 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, 300 cm and 600 cm). The resting position of accommodation for each individual was estimated from the graph where the accommodative stimulus in dioptres was plotted against the accommodative response in dioptres.

RESULTS:

The dioptric viewing distance with minimum heterophoria ranges from 0.003 D to 0.65 D in emmetropes and ranges from 0.03 D to 2.36 D in myopes. There is no difference in the dioptric viewing distance with minimum heterophoria between myopes and emmetropes. Our results show a possible but not significant correlation between the dioptric viewing distance with minimum heterophoria and the resting position of accommodation.

CONCLUSIONS:

The viewing distance with minimum heterophoria is not affected by refractive error (stable early-onset myopia) and is poorly correlated with the resting position of accommodation.

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