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Curr Biol. 2002 Dec 10;12(23):2029-34.

Spatial and temporal analysis of Rac activation during live neutrophil chemotaxis.

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1
Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Abstract

The ability of cells to recognize and respond with directed motility to chemoattractant agents is critical to normal physiological function. Neutrophils represent the prototypic chemotactic cell in that they respond to signals initiated through the binding of bacterial peptides and other chemokines to G protein-coupled receptors with speeds of up to 30 microm/min. It has been hypothesized that localized regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by Rho GTPases is critical to orchestrating cell movement. Using a FRET-based biosensor approach, we investigated the dynamics of Rac GTPase activation during chemotaxis of live primary human neutrophils. Rac has been implicated in establishing and maintaining the leading edge of motile cells, and we show that Rac is dynamically activated at specific locations in the extending leading edge. However, we also demonstrate activated Rac in the retracting tail of motile neutrophils. Rac activation is both stimulus and adhesion dependent. Expression of a dominant-negative Rac mutant confirms that Rac is functionally required both for tail retraction and for formation of the leading edge during chemotaxis. These data establish that Rac GTPase is spatially and temporally regulated to coordinate leading-edge extension and tail retraction during a complex motile response, the chemotaxis of human neutrophils.

PMID:
12477392
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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