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Appl Opt. 2002 Dec 1;41(34):7325-33.

Adaptive calibration for object localization in turbid media with interfering diffuse photon density waves.

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Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.


The amplitude cancellation method that uses dual out-of-phase sources (a phased array system) can sensitively detect and locate small objects in turbid media. The balance of these two sources is crucial to the system's detection sensitivity and accuracy. We describe a convenient method with which to adaptively calibrate the amplitudes of the two sources at each scanning position by use of low-frequency modulation of the intensity of the in-phase and the antiphase sources. We achieve accurate localization ability of the phased array system by accounting for the influence of asymmetrical boundaries and the heterogeneous background absorption. Experimental data on human breast phantoms demonstrate that localization accuracy within several millimeters has been accomplished through this method.

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