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Neuroscientist. 2002 Dec;8(6):562-73.

GABA and glutamate in the human brain.

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Department of Neurology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8018, USA.


Cortical excitability reflects a balance between excitation and inhibition. Glutamate is the main excitatory and GABA the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian cortex. Changes in glutamate and GABA metabolism may play important roles in the control of cortical excitability. Glutamate is the metabolic precursor of GABA, which can be recycled through the tricarboxylic acid cycle to synthesize glutamate. GABA synthesis is unique among neurotransmitters, having two separate isoforms of the rate-controlling enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase. The need for two separate genes on two chromosomes to control GABA synthesis is unexplained. Two metabolites of GABA are present in uniquely high concentrations in the human brain. Homocarnosine and pyrrolidinone have a major impact on GABA metabolism in the human brain. Both of these GABA metabolites have anticonvulsant properties and can have a major impact on cortical excitability.

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