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J Rheumatol. 2002 Dec;29(12):2635-42.

Longterm followup of childhood lupus nephritis.

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1
Divisions of Rheumatology and Nephrology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the longterm outcome in children with onset of lupus nephritis before 18 years of age.

METHODS:

Sixty-seven patients with onset of lupus nephritis prior to age 18 were identified. The mean followup time was 11 years (range 5-19). The mean age at diagnosis was 13.2 years (range 4-17). The male:female ratio was 1:3.8. Renal biopsies were classified using the WHO classification. Fifteen patients had Class II, 8 patients Class III, 32 patients Class IV, and 11 patients Class V and one patient refused biopsy. The cohort consists of the 66 patients who had a renal biopsy. Five patients received cyclophosphamide (CYC) and 17 received azathioprine (AZA) as part of the initial treatment of Class IV nephritis. Eight additional patients received CYC because of a flare of disease while receiving AZA, and 8 other patients received AZA because of a flare of disease while taking prednisone therapy.

RESULTS:

Four patients died; 6 developed endstage renal disease (ESRD); all but one of the patients who died and/or had ESRD had WHO Class IV [diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN)]; only 2 Caucasians developed ESRD, although 16 out of 36 Caucasians had DPGN; serum creatinine at followup was normal in 84% of the survivors; presently 70% of the patients take less than 7.5 mg prednisone/day and 62% do not take cytotoxic drugs. No patient is currently treated with CYC. All 8 patients with Class III nephritis were taking medication at last followup.

CONCLUSION:

The longterm outcome in this group of children with lupus nephritis, in whom AZA was the most commonly used immunosuppressive agent, was excellent, with 94% patient survival at a mean followup of 11 years. Our results suggest that non-Caucasian patients with pediatric onset lupus nephritis may be at increased risk for renal failure compared to Caucasians.

PMID:
12465165
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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