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Physiol Genomics. 2002 Dec 3;11(3):115-32. Epub 2002 Dec 3.

Of mice and models: improved animal models for biomedical research.

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Laboratory of Molecular Mouse Genetics, Institute of Toxicology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, D-55131 Mainz, Germany.


The ability to engineer the mouse genome has profoundly transformed biomedical research. During the last decade, conventional transgenic and gene knockout technologies have become invaluable experimental tools for modeling genetic disorders, assigning functions to genes, evaluating drugs and toxins, and by and large helping to answer fundamental questions in basic and applied research. In addition, the growing demand for more sophisticated murine models has also become increasingly evident. Good state-of-principle knowledge about the enormous potential of second-generation conditional mouse technology will be beneficial for any researcher interested in using these experimental tools. In this review we will focus on practice, pivotal principles, and progress in the rapidly expanding area of conditional mouse technology. The review will also present an internet compilation of available tetracycline-inducible mouse models as tools for biomedical research (

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