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Genes Dev. 2002 Dec 1;16(23):3017-33.

Complex transcriptional circuitry at the G1/S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Connecticut 06520-8103, USA.


In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SBF (Swi4-Swi6 cell cycle box binding factor) and MBF (MluI binding factor) are the major transcription factors regulating the START of the cell cycle, a time just before DNA replication, bud growth initiation, and spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. These two factors bind to the promoters of 235 genes, but bind less than a quarter of the promoters upstream of genes with peak transcript levels at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Several functional categories, which are known to be crucial for G1/S events, such as SPB duplication/migration and DNA synthesis, are under-represented in the list of SBF and MBF gene targets. SBF binds the promoters of several other transcription factors, including HCM1, PLM2, POG1, TOS4, TOS8, TYE7, YAP5, YHP1, and YOX1. Here, we demonstrate that these factors are targets of SBF using an independent assay. To further elucidate the transcriptional circuitry that regulates the G1-to-S-phase progression, these factors were epitope-tagged and their binding targets were identified by chIp-chip analysis. These factors bind the promoters of genes with roles in G1/S events including DNA replication, bud growth, and spindle pole complex formation, as well as the general activities of mitochondrial function, transcription, and protein synthesis. Although functional overlap exists between these factors and MBF and SBF, each of these factors has distinct functional roles. Most of these factors bind the promoters of other transcription factors known to be cell cycle regulated or known to be important for cell cycle progression and differentiation processes indicating that a complex network of transcription factors coordinates the diverse activities that initiate a new cell cycle.

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