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Nat Rev Immunol. 2002 Dec;2(12):933-44.

The lineage decisions of helper T cells.

Author information

1
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. murphy@pathbox.wustl.edu

Abstract

After encountering antigen, helper T (T(H)) cells undergo differentiation to effector cells, which can secrete high levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10 and other immunomodulators. How T(H) cells acquire, and remember, new patterns of gene expression is an area of intensive investigation. The process is remarkably plastic, with cytokines being key regulators. Extrinsic signals seem to be integrated into cell-intrinsic programming, in what is becoming an intriguing story of regulated development. We summarize the latest insights into mechanisms that govern the lineage choices that are made during T(H)-cell responses to foreign pathogens.

PMID:
12461566
DOI:
10.1038/nri954
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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