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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Dec 1;54(5):1322-30.

Ultrasonography and fluoroscopic fusion for prostate brachytherapy dosimetry.

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Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.



To investigate the feasibility of performing postimplant and intraoperative dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy by fusing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and fluoroscopic data.


Registration of ultrasound (prostate boundary) and fluoroscopic (seed) data requires spatial markers that are detectable by both imaging modalities. In this study, the needle tips were considered as such fiducials. Prostate phantoms were implanted with the seeds, and four localization needles were inserted. In the TRUS frame of reference, the longitudinal coordinate of the needle tip was determined by advancing the needle until the echo from its tip just registered at a known probe depth. The tip's transverse coordinates were determined from the associated TRUS slice. The three-dimensional needle tip positions were also calculated in the fluoroscopic coordinate system using a seed reconstruction method. The transformation between the TRUS and fluoroscopy coordinate systems was established by the least-squares solution using the singular value decomposition.


With three of four needle tips as fiducials and the one remaining needle as a test target, the mean fiducial registration error was 0.8 mm and the test target registration error was 2.5 mm. When all four points were used for registration, the errors decreased to 1.1 mm. A comparison between the proposed method and CT-based dosimetry yielded a percentage of prostate volume receiving 100% and 150% of the prescribed minimal peripheral dose and minimal dose received by 90% of the prostate gland that agreed within 0.4%, 2.7%, and 4.2%, respectively.


The combination of TRUS and fluoroscopy is a feasible alternative to the currently used CT-based postimplant dosimetry. Furthermore, because of online imaging capability, the method lends itself to real-time intraoperative applications.

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