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Curr Opin Microbiol. 2002 Dec;5(6):608-11.

Candida biofilms.

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Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA.


In response to attachment to a surface, fungal cells produce biofilms, three-dimensional structures composed of cells surrounded by exopolymeric matrices. Surface attachment causes Candida albicans cells to enter a special physiological state in which they are highly resistant to antifungal drugs and express the drug efflux determinants CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1. C. albicans biofilms produced under different conditions differ in their cellular morphology and matrix content, which suggests that biofilms formed within a host, for example on indwelling medical devices, would also differ depending on the nature of the device and its location. The mechanisms by which surface attachment leads to biofilm formation are presently not understood.

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