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Gastroenterology. 2002 Dec;123(6):2005-16.

Inflammatory-mediated repression of the rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter by c-fos nuclear translocation.

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Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Liver Diseases, Department of Pediatrics and the Immunobiology Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.



Ileal malabsorption of bile salts is observed in Crohn's ileitis. We define the transcriptional mechanisms involved in cytokine-mediated repression of the rat apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT).


ASBT regulation was studied in IL-1beta-treated IEC-6 and Caco-2 cells and in indomethacin-treated rats.


Indomethacin-induced ileitis in Lewis rats leads to specific reductions in ileal ASBT messenger RNA and protein levels, whereas c-jun and c-fos are induced. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor repress the activity of the ASBT promoter in Caco-2 and intestinal epithelial cell-6 cells. This effect is blocked by the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, or by the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin. Indomethacin (in vivo) or proinflammatory cytokine (in vitro) treatment leads to serine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of c-fos. Mutation of a 5' activated protein (AP)-1 site inactivates the ASBT promoter, whereas mutation of the 3' site abrogates the proinflammatory cytokine-mediated repression. The 5' site binds a c-jun homodimer, whereas the 3' site binds a c-jun/c-fos heterodimer. c-Jun overexpression enhances ASBT promoter activity, whereas a dominant negative c-jun construct inactivates the promoter. c-Fos overexpression represses promoter activity. A 27 base pair cis-element from the 3' site in the ASBT promoter imparts cytokine-mediated down-regulation to a heterologous SV40 promoter construct.


The ASBT promoter contains 2 distinct cis AP-1 elements; the 5' element binds homodimeric c-jun and mediates basal transcription. Inflammation is associated with up-regulation, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of c-fos, which then represses ASBT promoter activity via binding of the 3' AP-1 element by a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer.

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