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Mol Microbiol. 2002 Dec;46(5):1429-40.

The yeast zinc finger regulators Pdr1p and Pdr3p control pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) as homo- and heterodimers in vivo.

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Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Vienna, Vienna BioCenter, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.


The transcription factors Pdr1p and Pdr3p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediate pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) by controlling expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as Pdr5p, Snq2p and Yor1p. Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that Pdr1p and Pdr3p recognize so-called pleiotropic drug resistance elements (PDREs) in the promoters of target genes. In this study, we show that both Pdr1p and Pdr3p are phosphoproteins; Pdr3p isoforms migrate as two bands in gel electrophoresis, reflecting two distinct phosphorylation states. Most importantly, native co-immunoprecipitation experiments, using functional epitope-tagged Pdr1p/Pdr3p variants, demonstrate that Pdr1p and Pdr3p can form both homo- and heterodimers in vivo. Furthermore, in vivo footprinting of PDRE-containing promoters demonstrate that Pdr1p/Pdr3p constitutively occupy both perfect and degenerate PDREs in vivo. Thus, in addition to interaction with other regulators, differential dimerization provides a plausible explanation for the observation that Pdr3p and Pdr1p can both positively and negatively control PDR promoters with different combinations of perfect and degenerate PDREs.

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