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Int J Paediatr Dent. 2002 Nov;12(6):415-22.

Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence in the fluorosis endemic area of Asembagus, Indonesia.

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Pediatric Dentistry Department, Dental Faculty, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.



The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and caries in a fluorosis endemic area, with fluoride content in drinking water ranging from 0.51 to 3.15 ppm.


Children (n = 474), aged 6-12 years, were randomly selected from one primary school in each of ten villages in the subdistrict of Asembagus. The villages were grouped into four according to the fluoride content in the drinking water: Group A: 0.41-0.50; Group B: 0.73-0.90; Group C: 2.01-2.41 and Group D: 3.07-3.25. Fluorosis examination used Bischoff's modification (1976), which was based on Dean's classifications, and caries was scored according to WHO standard 1997.


D(T) from Group A to D increased from 0.46, 0.55, 0.66 to 1.03; while d(T) decreased from 0.89, 0.87, 0.86 to 0.32. CFI increased from 1.36, 1.67, 2.03 to 1.80. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was significant for the relationship between fluoride water content and CFI, D(T), and d(T). There was no significant linear relationship between fluoride water content and D(T) or d(T), but there was a positive correlation with CFI. Caries prevalence in the subdistrict was 62% for permanent teeth and 68% for primary teeth. Fluorosis prevalence was 96% with a mean CFI of 1.71.


The high CFI values of 1.36 and 1.67 in villages A and B may relate to the main side-dishes eaten in the two villages. Of these, 88% contained fish, 68% dried salted fish and 61% a type of shellfish gathered locally.

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