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Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Dec;4(12):955-62.

Regulated exocytosis: a novel, widely expressed system.

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Department of Neuroscience, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University and Excellence Centre in Cell Differentiation, via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy.


Electrophysiological studies in some secretory and non-secretory cells have identified an extensive form of calcium-induced exocytosis that is rapid (hundreds of milliseconds), insensitive to tetanus toxin and distinct from regulated secretion. We have now identified a marker of the process, desmoyokin-AHNAK, in a clonal derivative of the neuronal cell line, PC12. In resting cells, desmoyokin-AHNAK is localized within the lumen of specific vesicles, but appears on the cell surface during stimulation. Desmoyokin-AHNAK-positive vesicles exist in a variety of cells and tissues and are distinct from the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, trans-Golgi, endosomes and lysosomes, and from Glut4 and constitutive secretion vesicles. They seem to be involved in two models of plasmalemma enlargement: differentiation and membrane repair. We therefore propose that these vesicles should be called 'enlargosomes'.

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