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BMC Med Res Methodol. 2002 Nov 18;2:14. Epub 2002 Nov 18.

Bias and heteroscedastic memory error in self-reported health behavior: an investigation using covariance structure analysis.

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Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Saúde Pública-CCS, Campus Universitario, Trindade, 88,040-900 Florianópolis-SC, Brazil.



Frequent use of self-reports for investigating recent and past behavior in medical research requires statistical techniques capable of analyzing complex sources of bias associated with this methodology. In particular, although decreasing accuracy of recalling more distant past events is commonplace, the bias due to differential in memory errors resulting from it has rarely been modeled statistically.


Covariance structure analysis was used to estimate the recall error of self-reported number of sexual partners for past periods of varying duration and its implication for the bias.


Results indicated increasing levels of inaccuracy for reports about more distant past. Considerable positive bias was found for a small fraction of respondents who reported ten or more partners in the last year, last two years and last five years. This is consistent with the effect of heteroscedastic random error where the majority of partners had been acquired in the more distant past and therefore were recalled less accurately than the partners acquired more recently to the time of interviewing.


Memory errors of this type depend on the salience of the events recalled and are likely to be present in many areas of health research based on self-reported behavior.

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