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Mol Biol Cell. 2002 Nov;13(11):3976-88.

Localization of phospholipase D1 to caveolin-enriched membrane via palmitoylation: implications for epidermal growth factor signaling.

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Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784, Korea.


Phospholipase D (PLD) has been suggested to mediate epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling. However, the molecular mechanism of EGF-induced PLD activation has not yet been elucidated. We investigated the importance of the phosphorylation and compartmentalization of PLD1 in EGF signaling. EGF treatment of COS-7 cells transiently expressing PLD1 stimulated PLD1 activity and induced PLD1 phosphorylation. The EGF-induced phosphorylation of threonine147 was completely blocked and the activity of PLD1 attenuated by point mutations (S2A/T147A/S561A) of PLD1 phosphorylation sites. The expression of a dominant negative PKCalpha mutant by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer greatly inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of PLD1 induced by EGF in PLD1-transfected COS-7 cells. EGF-induced PLD1 phosphorylation occurred primarily in the caveolin-enriched membrane (CEM) fraction, and the kinetics of PLD1 phosphorylation in the CEM were strongly correlated with PLD1 phosphorylation in the total membrane. Interestingly, EGF-induced PLD1 phosphorylation and activation and the coimmunoprecipitation of PLD1 with caveolin-1 and the EGF receptor in the CEM were significantly attenuated in the palmitoylation-deficient C240S/C241S mutant, which did not localize to the CEM. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that wild-type PLD1 colocalized with caveolin-1 and the EGF receptor and that phosphorylated PLD1 was localized exclusively in the plasma membrane, although some PLD1 was also detected in vesicular structures. Transfection of wild-type PLD1 but not of C240S/C241S mutant increased EGF-induced raf-1 translocation to the CEM and ERK phosphorylation. This study shows, for the first time, that EGF-induced PLD1 phosphorylation and activation occur in the CEM and that the correct localization of PLD1 to the CEM via palmitoylation is critical for EGF signaling.

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