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J Abnorm Psychol. 2002 Nov;111(4):670-5.

Negative mood, depressive symptoms, and major depression after smoking cessation treatment in smokers with a history of major depressive disorder.

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Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown Medical School/Butler Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.


Negative mood, depressive symptoms, and major depressive episodes (MDEs) were examined in 179 smokers with a history of major depression in a trial comparing standard smoking cessation treatment to treatment incorporating cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D). Early lapses were associated with relatively large increases in negative mood on quit date. Mood improved in the 2 weeks after quit date among those returning to regular smoking but not among those smoking moderately. Continuous abstinence was associated with short- and long-term reductions in depressive symptoms. MDE incidence during follow-up was 15.3% and was not associated with abstinence. Unexpected was that CBT-D was associated with greater negative mood and depressive symptoms and increased MDE risk. Results suggest complex bidirectional associations between affect and smoking outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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