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Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002 Oct;35(10):1173-81. Epub 2002 Oct 13.

Factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS patients: a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil.

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Servi o de Assist ncia Especializada em HIV/AIDS, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brasil.


A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-infected adults being treated with antiretroviral drugs at a reference service in Southern Brazil. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and were tested by scales assessing sociocognitive variables. Adherence to treatment was assessed by a self-report inventory developed for the study. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' records. Significance tests were conducted using univariate logistic regressions followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 195 patients participated in the study and 56.9% of them reported > or = 95% adherence on the previous two days. In univariate analysis, the odds of adherence increased with self-efficacy (a person's conviction that he/she can successfully execute the behavior required to produce a certain desired outcome) in taking medications as prescribed (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.90-6.55), and decreased with perception of negative affect and physical concerns (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.95). The odds were lower for taking antiretroviral medications >4 times a day (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.94) and higher for patients with 8 years of schooling (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.12-4.66). In the multivariate analysis, self-efficacy (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.69-6.56) and taking medication >4 times a day (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.80) were independently associated with adherence. Self-efficacy was the most important predictor of adherence, followed by number of times antiretroviral medication was taken per day. Among sociodemographic and clinical variables, only the number of years of schooling was associated with adherence. Motivational interventions based on self-efficacy may be useful for increasing treatment adherence.

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