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J Immunol. 2002 Nov 15;169(10):5555-63.

Retinoic acid stimulates the cell cycle machinery in normal T cells: involvement of retinoic acid receptor-mediated IL-2 secretion.

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Department of Medical Biochemistry, Institute Group of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.


The mechanisms whereby vitamin A stimulates the immune system are poorly understood. In the current study, we attempted to elucidate the potential mechanisms of action of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on proliferation of human T lymphocytes. We found that physiological levels of atRA potently augmented T cell proliferation when added in combination with common T cell-stimulating agents. This was reflected in a time- and concentration-dependent stimulation of the cell cycle machinery. The presence of atRA led to elevated levels of cyclin D3, -E, and -A, decreased levels of p27(Kip1), increased activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and enhanced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB). The atRA-mediated changes in the cell cycle machinery were late events, appearing after 20 h of stimulation, indicating that the effects of atRA were indirect. atRA did not alter the expression of the high-affinity IL-2R. However, the level of IL-2 secreted by T cells was strongly enhanced by atRA. rIL-2 was able to substitute for the effects of atRA on the cell cycle machinery and on DNA synthesis, and blocking the IL-2R markedly inhibited atRA-induced cell proliferation and pRB phosphorylation. A retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-selective agonist and 9-cis-RA had the same potency as atRA on T cell proliferation and IL-2 secretion, whereas a retinoid X receptor-selective agonist had only marginal effects. Furthermore, a RAR-selective antagonist completely suppressed T cell proliferation and pRB phosphorylation induced by atRA. Taken together, these results suggest that atRA stimulates the cell cycle machinery and proliferation of normal human T cells by increasing IL-2 secretion through mechanisms involving RARs.

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