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J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 31;278(5):3265-74. Epub 2002 Oct 31.

The genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in aerobic chemostat cultures limited for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur.

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  • 1Kluyver Laboratory of Biotechnology, Technical University of Delft, Julianalaan 67, 2628BC Delft, The Netherlands.


Profiles of genome-wide transcriptional events for a given environmental condition can be of importance in the diagnosis of poorly defined environments. To identify clusters of genes constituting such diagnostic profiles, we characterized the specific transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to growth limitation by carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur. Microarray experiments were performed using cells growing in steady-state conditions in chemostat cultures at the same dilution rate. This enabled us to study the effects of one particular limitation while other growth parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen tension) remained constant. Furthermore, the composition of the media fed to the cultures was altered so that the concentrations of excess nutrients were comparable between experimental conditions. In total, 1881 transcripts (31% of the annotated genome) were significantly changed between at least two growth conditions. Of those, 484 were significantly higher or lower in one limitation only. The functional annotations of these genes indicated cellular metabolism was altered to meet the growth requirements for nutrient-limited growth. Furthermore, we identified responses for several active transcription factors with a role in nutrient assimilation. Finally, 51 genes were identified that showed 10-fold higher or lower expression in a single condition only. The transcription of these genes can be used as indicators for the characterization of nutrient-limited growth conditions and provide information for metabolic engineering strategies.

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