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Tree Physiol. 2002 Nov;22(15-16):1065-77.

How the environment, canopy structure and canopy physiological functioning influence carbon, water and energy fluxes of a temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest--an assessment with the biophysical model CANOAK.

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Ecosystem Science Division, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, 151 Hilgard Hall, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.


This paper focuses on how canopy structure, its physiological functioning and the environment interact to control and drive the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor between a temperate forest stand and the atmosphere. First, we present an overview of how temporal and spatial variations in canopy structure (e.g., leaf area index, species, leaf inclination angles, leaf clumping) and physiological functioning (e.g., maximal stomatal conductance, photosynthetic capacity) modulate CO2 and water vapor fluxes. Then, with the biophysical model CANOAK, we quantify the effects of leaf dimension and thickness, vertical variations in leaf area and photosynthetic capacity, leaf clumping, leaf inclination angles, photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance and weather on the annual sums of CO2, water vapor and sensible heat exchange. Finally, we discuss how much detail is needed in a model to predict fluxes of CO2 and water vapor with acceptable fidelity.

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