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FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2002 Nov;26(4):339-53.

Salmonella vaccines for use in humans: present and future perspectives.

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Department of Biomedical Sciences, Dstl Chemical and Biological Sciences, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK.


In recent years there has been significant progress in the development of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains as candidate typhoid fever vaccines. In clinical trials these vaccines have been shown to be well tolerated and immunogenic. For example, the attenuated S. enterica var. Typhi strains CVD 908-htrA (aroC aroD htrA), Ty800 (phoP phoQ) and chi4073 (cya crp cdt) are all promising candidate typhoid vaccines. In addition, clinical trials have demonstrated that S. enterica var. Typhi vaccines expressing heterologous antigens, such as the tetanus toxin fragment C, can induce immunity to the expressed antigens in human volunteers. In many cases, the problems associated with expression of antigens in Salmonella have been successfully addressed and the future of Salmonella vaccine development is very promising.

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